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Understanding EIP-4844: Ethereum’s Proto-Danksharding

By Saylık SeherandLavrenenko ViktorandMalanii Oleh

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In the active world of Ethereum, scalability is a key challenge. Enter EIP-4844, a promising solution for reducing gas fees and boosting efficiency. This proposal, known as “Proto-Danksharding,” is a game-changer in Ethereum’s scalability efforts.

EIP-4844: A Step Towards Ethereum’s Scalability

Understanding Sharding and Its Role

At its core, sharding is about breaking down the Ethereum network into smaller, manageable parts, or “shards.” Each shard operates independently, with its own set of validators and states, allowing for parallel processing of transactions and data. Think of it as a team working on different parts of a project simultaneously – efficient and effective. Unsharding, on the other hand, is the reverse process, which reunites these individual shards to form a coherent, unified Ethereum network.

The Power of Proto-Danksharding

EIP-4844 uses an innovative approach called Proto-Danksharding. It creates “blobs” – data units attached to Ethereum’s existing blocks. These blobs provide a specific storage space for layer 2 rollups, crucial for keeping operational costs low.

Why EIP-4844 Matters

With EIP-4844, Ethereum is looking to drastically increase how many transactions it can handle at once. This means lower fees and a more accessible platform for users and developers alike. It’s a step towards a more efficient Ethereum ecosystem based on L2 rollups.

EIP-4844’s Role In Reducing Gas Fees

Rollups: The Backbone of Ethereum Scaling

Rollups, both Optimistic and ZK (Zero-Knowledge), are crucial in Ethereum’s scaling strategy. They significantly reduce fees — with Optimism and Arbitrum offering fees about 3-8 times lower than Ethereum’s base layer and ZK-rollups achieving even greater reductions. But even these reduced fees are still a burden for many users, underlining the need for further cost-effective solutions.

A Stopgap to Future Scalability

EIP-4844 is an interim solution before full data sharding becomes a reality. By introducing blob transactions, which will be part of the final sharding implementation, EIP-4844 offers immediate scaling relief. These blob transactions are included in the beacon chain and are fully downloaded by consensus nodes, albeit temporarily. This design limits the data to about 0.375 MB per block, effectively managing network load and costs.

Adapting Gas Pricing and Network Load

The EIP-4844 proposal brings an innovative gas pricing mechanism that self-adjusts based on the network’s blob gas consumption. It approximates gas prices using an exponential formula, balancing usage and cost as network traffic varies. This mechanism, combined with blob-carrying transactions, positions EIP-4844 as a pivotal advancement in Ethereum’s scalability journey.

Technical Insights Of EIP-4844

Innovative Blob Transactions

At the core of EIP-4844 lies the concept of “blob transactions.” These are special kinds of transactions that incorporate large, fixed-size data chunks, known as blobs. Blobs are crucial in reducing the growth of block sizes. By segregating data into a sidecar and routing it through a separate data layer (not L1), EIP-4844 effectively reduces transaction fees. Additionally, this new structure allows for data pruning after a certain time, enhancing both efficiency and cost-effectiveness.

Merged Fee Market

An innovation of EIP-4844, inspired by Danksharding, is creating a merged fee market. Unlike traditional systems with multiple shards and distinct block proposers, Danksharding proposes a single proposer for all transactions and data in a slot. This approach significantly simplifies the network’s complexity.

Proposer/Builder Separation (PBS)

To manage this unified system without overburdening validators, EIP-4844 introduces the concept of Proposer/Builder Separation (PBS). Specialized actors, known as block builders, bid for the right to choose the slot’s contents. The proposer then selects the highest-bid valid header. It separates gas and blobs, giving each its own distinct gas prices and limits. This separation means that only the block builder processes the entire block, while others can verify it efficiently through data availability sampling. Hence, EIP-4844 promotes separate fee markets for data and execution.

Proto-Danksharding: Setting the Stage for Future Scalability

Proto-danksharding, a precursor to full Danksharding, is a key aspect of EIP-4844. It involves implementing most of the necessary logic and frameworks, like transaction formats and verification rules, without actual sharding. In this phase, validators and users still directly validate the full data availability.

Potential Benefits Of EIP-4844

Impact on Rollups and Scalability

EIP-4844’s new transaction type, particularly blob-carrying transactions, provides a massive boost to scalability. These transactions, carrying large blobs of data, do not compete for gas on Ethereum’s L1.

This separation leads to more efficient pricing for rollups and reduces overall transaction costs. The mechanism for blob fees, akin to EIP-1559, targets average block sizes of 1MB, a significant leap from Ethereum’s current capacity. This enhancement primarily benefits rollups, fostering competition among various solutions and significantly reducing transaction costs.

  • 100x Reduction in Transaction Fees for Rollups: EIP-4844’s introduction of “blob transactions” and a merged fee market can lead to a substantial reduction in transaction fees for rollups. This enhanced cost-efficiency benefits users and incentivizes greater adoption of Ethereum’s layer 2 solutions.
  • Scalability for a Global Transaction Network: EIP-4844 lays the groundwork for Ethereum to efficiently manage a global transaction network. By optimizing data management and scalability, it becomes more feasible for Ethereum to handle a higher volume of transactions, supporting a wide range of applications and users.
  • Enhanced Competitiveness in the Cryptocurrency Space: With reduced fees, improved transaction processing, and scalability, Ethereum becomes more competitive in the cryptocurrency ecosystem. It can better position itself as a top choice for developers, users, and businesses seeking a secure and cost-effective blockchain platform.
  • Streamlined Data Pruning and Management: EIP-4844 introduces efficient data pruning mechanisms, ensuring that data only needs to be available for a specific period. This reduces the long-term storage requirements and costs, making Ethereum more sustainable and eco-friendly.
  • Future-Proofing for Network Upgrades: By introducing a modular approach and a dedicated data layer, Ethereum can adapt to future changes and upgrades more easily. This flexibility allows different teams to specialize in their respective areas, fostering ongoing innovation within the Ethereum ecosystem.
  • Improved User Experience: Lower transaction fees and enhanced scalability translate to an improved user experience. Users benefit from faster, more cost-effective transactions, making Ethereum a more attractive platform for various applications, including DeFi, NFTs, and more.

Conclusions & Opinions 

EIP-4844 introduces a new transaction type in Ethereum, specifically for handling “blobs” of data. This data is temporarily stored in beacon nodes, with the size of the blobs being small enough to ensure manageable disk usage.

In our opinion, EIP-4844 marks a significant step in Ethereum’s efforts to boost its scalability and cut transaction costs. With these improvements, Ethereum is likely to strengthen its position in the cryptocurrency realm, attracting more developers, users, and businesses seeking an efficient and cost-effective blockchain platform.

The lower gas fees and enhanced scalability should greatly improve the experience for the typical Ethereum user, making decentralized applications more accessible and affordable. As Ethereum leads the way in implementing innovative upgrades, it sets a high standard for other blockchains, compelling them to innovate and adapt to stay competitive in the ever-changing world of blockchain technology. 

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  1. EIP-4844: Shard Blob Transactions
  2. Vitalik Buterin’s Notes on Proto-Danksharding
  3. An In-Depth Explanation of EIP-4844 – The Core of the Cancun Upgrade
  4. EIP-4844 Website 
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