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Ensuring the Integrity of VeChain’s Account Abstraction Layer: A Case Study

By Malanii Oleh

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VeChain stands at the forefront of blockchain innovation, offering robust solutions that enhance business operations and supply chain management. A pivotal component of VeChain’s ecosystem is its Account Abstraction Layer (AAL), designed to streamline user interactions by abstracting complexities associated with blockchain transactions.

In December 2023, Hacken conducted a comprehensive audit of VeChain’s Account Abstraction, awarding it a perfect 10/10 score.

Audit Overview

The technical audit of VeChain’s Account Abstraction Layer (AAL) was meticulously designed to evaluate its security, code quality, and documentation depth, with a specific focus on its innovative implementation of ERC-4337, adapted from Eth-Infinitism.

About Account Abstraction

ERC-4337 introduces a revolutionary approach to account abstraction in Ethereum, eliminating the need for users to hold Ether for transaction fees. It facilitates user-friendly interactions with the blockchain through the integration of “bundlers” and “Smart Contract Wallets” (SCWs), significantly enhancing transaction flexibility and smart contract operability.

VeChain’s Implementation of ERC-4337

VeChain’s AAL, leveraging this standard, includes advanced features such as the ability for the BasePaymaster owner to manage VTHO tokens through functions like addStake(), unlockStake(), and withdrawStake(), enabling precise control over staking and withdrawal processes. This audit scrutinized the AAL’s adherence to these technical specifications, aiming to ensure that VeChain’s implementation not only met but surpassed the rigorous requirements set forth by blockchain security standards.


The audit methodology utilized automated tools for initial vulnerability identification, followed by detailed manual testing to probe deeper into identified issues.

Manual testing was pivotal, focusing on areas like misconfigured access controls, insecure API endpoints, and inadequate encryption practices, which automated tools might overlook. 

This methodical approach emphasized real-world attack scenarios, ensuring a comprehensive assessment by simulating potential threat vectors. It aimed at uncovering not just superficial vulnerabilities but also intricate security flaws that could compromise the system’s integrity, providing a robust framework for securing VeChain’s AAL against sophisticated cyber threats.

Key Findings and Insights

The audit uncovered several issues of varying severities, from medium to low; no critical or high issues were found. Here are some key insights:

  • We found a medium-severity issue related to redundant gas reservation, which could impact transaction efficiency.
  • Low severity issues included potential execution reversion from incorrect revert reason sizes and inconsistencies in user operation hash generation.

These findings underscored areas for enhancement, all of which were promptly addressed by VeChain’s development team.

Security Enhancements and Best Practices

VeChain addressed audit findings, achieving a perfect total and security score of 10/10. Enhancements included optimizations to gas reservation processes and improvements in error handling and hash generation mechanisms. The audit’s recommendations also led VeChain to adopt new best practices in secure smart contract development and documentation.


The audit significantly bolstered the security and functionality of VeChain’s Account Abstraction Layer. By embracing the audit’s findings and recommendations, VeChain demonstrated its commitment to security and reliability. This case study not only highlights the critical role of comprehensive audits in blockchain ecosystem development but also VeChain’s dedication to continual improvement and innovation.

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